Research Methodology Notes MBA BBA


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Download research methodology notes MBA BBA. uptu research methodology notes define definition of research methodology .
Definition of research:
The Random House Dictionary of the English language defines the term ‘Research’ as a diligent and systematic inquiry or investigation into a subject in order to discover or revise facts, theories, applications, etc.

This definiton explains that research involves acquisition of knowledge. Research means search for truth. Truth means the quality of being in agreement with reality or facts. It also means an established or verified fact.

To do research is to get nearer to truth, to understand the reality.

Research is the pursuit of truth with the help of study, observation, comparison and experimentation. In other words, the search for knowledge through objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem/answer to a question is research.

Some definitions of Research:
L.V. Redman and A.V.H. Mory in their book on “The Romance of Research” defined research as “a systematized effort to gain new knowledge”
“Research is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic” (C.R. Kothari, Research Methodology - Methods and Techniques)
“A careful investigation or inquiry specially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge” (Advanced learners Dictionary of current English)
Research refers to a process of enunciating the problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the same, and reaching certain conclusions either in the form of solution to the problem enunciated or in certain generalizations for some theoretical formulation.
D. Slesinger and M. Stephenson in the Encyclopedia of Social Sciences defined research as: “Manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalizing and to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in the construction of a theory or in the practice of an art”.

MEANING OF SCIENCE:
The development of Science can be considered as a constant inter play between theory and facts.
•The word “Science” comes from the Latin word “Scientia” which means “knowledge”. As we have seen earlier, research involves acquisition of knowledge. Thus Science and research are related and go hand in hand.At one time the word science was used to denote all systematic studies or organized bodies of knowledge.
Let us see some definitions.
• “Science means a branch of ( accumulated) knowledge”. In this sense it refers to a particular field or branch of knowledge such as Physics, Chemistry, Economics.•– “The systematized knowledge about things or events in nature is called Science”.



Knowledge:•Human knowledge takes the form of beliefs or judgement about a particular phenomenon. Some beliefs may be supported by evidence and some may not. The evidence may be based on our perceptions and experiences. The beliefs which are supported by evidence are called justified beliefs. Only justified beliefs are knowledge. Ordinary belief (not supported by evidence) is not knowledge.
•Scientific knowledge is unified, organized and systematic, while ordinary knowledge is a jumble of isolated and disconnected facts. Science applies special means and methods to render knowledge true and exact, but ordinary knowledge rests on observations which are not methodical. But scientific knowledge and ordinary knowledge are not different in kind, but only in degree. Scientific knowledge is more specialized, exact and organized than ordinary knowledge.
Significance of research in business:•Research is the process of systematic and indepth study or search for a solution to a problem or an answer to a question backed by collection, compilation, presentation, analysis and interpretation of relevant details, data and information. It is also a systematic endeavour to discover valuable facts or relationships. Research may involve careful enquiry or experimentation and result in discovery or invention. There cannot be any research which does not increase knowledge which may be useful to different people in different ways.
•Let us see the need for research to business organizations and their managers and how it is useful to them.

•i) Industrial and economic activities have assumed huge dimensions. The size of modern business organizations indicates that managerial and administrative decisions can affect vast quantities of capital and a large number of people. Trial and error methods are not appreciated, as mistakes can be tremendously costly. Decisions must be quick but accurate and timely and should be objective i.e. based on facts and realities. In this back drop business decisions now a days are mostly influenced by research and research findings. Thus, research helps in quick and objective decisions.
•ii) Research, being a fact-finding process, significantly influences business decisions. The business management is interested in choosing that course of action which is most effective in attaining the goals of the organization. Research not only provides facts and figures to support business decisions but also enables the business to choose one which is best.
•Iii) A considerable number of business problems are now given quantitative treatment with some degree of success with the help of operations research. Research into management problems may result in certain conclusions by means of logical analysis which the decision maker may use for his action or solution.

•iv) Research plays a significant role in the identification of a new project, project feasibility and project implementation.
•v) Research helps the management to discharge its managerial functions of planning, forecasting, coordinating, motivating, controlling and evaluation effectively.

•vi) Research facilitates the process of thinking, analysing, evaluating and interpreting of the business environment and of various business situations and business alternatives. So as to be helpful in the formulation of business policy and strategy.
•vii) Research and Development ( R & D) helps discovery and invention. Developing new products or modifying the existing products, discovering new uses, new markets etc., is a continuous process in business.

•viii) The role of research in functional areas like production, finance, human resource management, marketing need not be over emphasized. Research not only establishes relationships between different variables in each of these functional areas, but also between these various functional areas.
•ix) Research is a must in the production area. Product development, new and better ways of producing goods, invention of new technologies, cost reduction, improving product quality, work simplification, performance improvement, process improvement etc., are some of the prominent areas of research in the production area.

•x) The purchase/material department uses research to frame alternative suitable policies regarding where to buy, when to buy, how much to buy, and at what price to buy.
•xi) Closely linked with production function is marketing function. Market research and marketing research provide a major part of marketing information which influences the inventory level and production level. Marketing research studies include problems and opportunities in the market, product preference, sales forecasting, advertising effectiveness, product distribution, after sales service etc.,
•xii) In the area of financial management, maintaining liquidity, profitability through proper funds management and assets management is essential. Optimum capital mix, matching of funds inflows and outflows, cash flow forecasting, cost control, pricing etc., require some sort of research and analysis. Financial institutions also (banking and non-banking) have found it essential to set up research division for the purpose of collecting and analysing data both for their internal purpose and for making indepth studies on economic conditions of business and people.

•xiii) In the area of human resource management personnel policies have to be guided by research. An individual’s motivation to work is associated with his needs and their satisfaction. An effective Human Resource Manager is one who can identify the needs of his work force and formulate personnel policies to satisfy the same so that they can be motivated to contribute their best to the attainment of organizational goals. Job design, job analysis, job assignment, scheduling work breaks etc., have to be based on investigation and analysis.
•xiv) Finally, research in business is a must to continuously update its attitudes, approaches, products goals, methods, and machinery in accordance with the changing environment in which it operates.
Types of Research:The following is only an
attempt to classify research into different types.

1: According to the Branch of Knowledge
Different Branches of knowledge may broadly be divided into two:
•a) Life and physical sciences such as Botany, Zoology, Physics and Chemistry.
•b) Social Sciences such as Political Science, Public Administration, Economics, Sociology, Commerce and Management.
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•The research carried out, in these areas, is called management research, production research, personnel research, financial management research, accounting research, Marketing research etc.
Management research includes various functions of management such as planning, organizing, staffing, communicating, coordinating, motivating, controlling. Various motivational theories are the result of research. Production (also called manufacturing) research focuses more on materials and equipment rather than on human aspects. It covers various aspects such as new and better ways of producing goods, inventing new technologies, reducing costs, improving product quality.
Research in personnel management may range from very simple problems to highly complex problems of all types. It is primarily concerned with the human aspects of the business such as personnel policies, job requirements, job evaluation, recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, promotion and transfer, morale and attitudes, wage and salary administration, industrial relations. Basic research in this field would be valuable as human behaviour affects organizational behaviour and productivity.
Research in Financial Management includes financial institutions, financing instruments (egs. shares, debentures), financial markets (capital market, money market, primary market, secondary market), financial services (egs. merchant banking, discounting, factoring), financial analysis (e.g. investment analysis, ratio analysis, funds flow / cash flow analysis) etc.,
Accounting research though narrow in its scope, but is a highly significant area of business management. Accounting information is used as a basis for reports to the management, shareholders, investors, tax authorities, regulatory bodies and other interested parties. Areas for accounting research include inventory valuation, depreciation accounting, generally accepted accounting principles, accounting standards, corporate reporting etc.
Marketing research deals with product development and distribution problems, marketing institutions, marketing policies and practices, consumer behaviour, advertising and sales promotion, sales management and after sales service etc. Marketing research is one of the very popular areas and also a well established one. Marketing research includes market potentials, sales forecasting, product testing, sales analysis, market surveys, test marketing, consumer behaviour studies, marketing information system etc.
Business policy research is basically the research with policy implications. The results of such studies are used as indices for policy formulation and implementation. Business history research is concerned with the past. For example, how was trade and commerce during the Moghul regime.
2: According to the Nature of Data
A simple dichotomous classification of research is Quantitative research and Qualitative research / non-quantitative.
•Quantitative research is variables based where as qualitative research is attributes based. Quantitative research is based on measurement / quantification of the phenomenon under study. In other words, it is data based and hence more objective and more popular.
Qualitative research is based on the subjective assessment of attributes, motives, opinions, desires, preferences, behaviour etc. Research in such a situation is a function of researcher’s insights and impressions.
3: According to the Coverage
According to the number of units covered it can be Macro study or Micro study. Macro study is a study of the whole where as Micro study is a study of the part. For example, working capital management in State Road Transport Corporations in India is a macro study where as Working Capital Management in Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation is a micro study.
4: According to Utility or Application
Depending upon the use of research results i.e., whether it is contributing to the theory building or problem solving, research can be Basic or Applied.
•Basic research is called pure / theoretical / fundamental research. Basic research includes original investigations for the advancement of knowledge that does not have specific objectives to answer problems of sponsoring agencies.
•Applied research also called Action research, constitutes research activities on problems posed by sponsoring agencies for the purpose of contributing to the solution of these problems.
5: According to the place where it is carried out
Depending upon the place where the research is carried out (according to the data generating source), research can be classified into:
a) Field Studies or field experiments
b) Laboratory studies or Laboratory experiments
c) Library studies or documentary research
6: According to the Research Methods used
Depending upon the research method used for the investigation, it can be classified as:
a) Survey research,
b) Observation research ,
c) Case research,
d) Experimental research,
e) Historical research,
f) Comparative research.

7:According to the Time Frame
Depending upon the time period adopted for the study, it can be
a) One time or single time period research - eg. One year or a point of time. Most of the sample studies, diagnostic studies are of this type.
b) Longitudinal research - eg. several years or several time periods ( a time series analysis) eg. industrial development during the five year plans in India.
8: According to the purpose of the Study

What is the purpose/aim/objective of the study ? Is it to describe or analyze or evaluate or explore? Accordingly the studies are known as.
a) Descriptive Study: The major purpose of descriptive research is the description of a person, situation, institution or an event as it exists. Generally fact finding studies are of this type.
b) Analytical Study: The researcher uses facts or information already available and analyses them to make a critical examination of the material. These are generally Ex-post facto studies or post-mortem studies.
c) Evaluation Study: This type of study is generally conducted to examine / evaluate the impact of a particular event, eg. Impact of a particular decision or a project or an investment.
d) Exploratory Study:The information known on a particular subject matter is little. Hence, a study is conducted to know more about it so as to formulate the problem and procedures of the study. Such a study is called exploratory/ formulative study.
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