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What is Law?Set of rules

Mercantile law or commercial Law?Sources of mercantile Law:-English Law:-
Indian Statute Law
Judicial Decision
Customs and Usages

Definitions:
Proposal - When one person signifies to another his willingness to do or to abstain from doing anything, with a view to obtaining the assent of that other to such act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal.
Promise - When the person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted.  A proposal, when accepted, becomes a promise. The person making the proposal is called the "promisor and the person accepting the proposal is called the It promise":
Consideration - When, at the desire of the promisor, the  promisee or  any other person has done or abstained from  doing, or does or abstains from doing, or promises to do or  to abstain from doing, something, such Act or abstinence or promise is called a consideration for the promise.
It must move at the desire of the promisor
It may move from promisee or any other person
It may be act, abstinence,
It may be past, present, future
Need not be adequate
It must be real and not illusory
It must not be something which the promisor is already bound to do
It must not be illegal / immoral
Stranger to the Contract
Agreement - Every promise and every set of promises, forming the consideration for each other, is an agreement.
Contract - An agreement enforceable by law is a contract. An agreement not enforceable by law is said to be void.
Sec 2(h)Contract - An agreement enforceable by law is a contract.
Sec 10:-All agreements are contracts if they are made by the free consent of parties competent to contract, for a lawful consideration and with a lawful object, and are not hereby expressly declared to be void.

Kinds of Contract.
Void contract – A contract which ceases to be enforceable by law becomes void when it ceases to be enforceable.
Executed contract – Where both the parties have performed their obligations, it is executed contract.
Executory Contract - Where neither of the parties have performed their obligations, i.e. both the parties are yet to perform their promises, the contract is executory.

Implied Contract – The terms of a contract are inferred from the conduct or dealings between the parties. When proposal or acceptance of any promise is made otherwise than in words, the promise is said to be implied. Such implied promise leads to Implied Contract.
Quasi Contract – Certain relations resemble those created by a contract. Certain obligations which are not contracts in fact but are so in contemplation of law are Quasi Contracts.
Contingent Contract - It is a contract to do or not to do something, if some event, collateral to such contract, does or does not happen.
Voidable Contract – A contract is voidable when one of the parties to the contract have not exercised their free consent.
Speciality Contract – It is a contract which is in writing, signed, sealed & delivered by the parties.
Essential elements of a Valid Contract.

1. Proposal & Acceptance.
2. Consideration.
3. Capacity of parties to contract.
4. Free Consent.
5. Agreement should not be expressly declared void.
6. Writing & Registration, if so required by law.
7. Legal Relationship.
8. Certainity.
9. Possibility of Performance.
10. Enforceable by law.
Proposals :
Proposal - When one person signifies to another his willingness to do or to abstain from doing anything, with a view to obtaining the assent of that other to such act or abstinence, he is said to make a proposal.
Essentials of Proposal:
1. Beyond expression of willingness, there must be something in the nature of a request.
2. Proposer cannot dictate terms.
3. An offer must be intended to create & capable of creating legal relations.
 Communication of proposals.
The communication of a proposal is complete when it comes to the knowledge of the person to whom it is made.
Eg - A proposes, by letter, to sell a house to B at a certain price. The communication of the proposal is complete when B receives the letter.
Acceptance
When one person to whom the proposal is made signifies his assent thereto, the proposal is said to be accepted.
Proposal when accepted becomes promise.
The person making the proposal is called the Promisor and person accepting the proposal becomes Promisee.
Essentials of Acceptance.
1. Acceptance must be absolute and unqualified.
2. It must be expressed in some usual & reasonable manner.
3. Mental Acceptance is not sufficient in Law.
4. Acceptance must be communicated to the offerer.
5. Acceptance must be by a certain person.
6. Acceptance must be given within a reasonable time.
7. Acceptance must be given before the offer lapses or is revoked or is withdrawn.
8.Acceptance of proposal is acceptance of all terms.
Communication of an acceptance
The communication of an acceptance is complete, -
as against the proposer, when it is put in a course of transmission to him, so as to be out of the power of the acceptor; as against the acceptor, when it comes to the, knowledge, of the proposer.
Eg : B accepts A's proposal by a letter sent by post.  The communication of the acceptance is complete, as against A when the letter is posted as against B, when the letter is received by A.
Capacity of parties to Contract.
An agreement becomes a contract if it is entered between the parties who are competent to Contract.
Every person is Competent to contract
1. Who is of the age of majority according to the law.
2. Who is of sound mind.
3. Who is not disqualified by any law.
Monor’s Contract
Void-ab-initio
Cant rectified by minor on Majority
Cant asked to refund benefit
nNo Estoppels to plead minority
Partner for benefit in firm
Minor’s Estate liable for necessaries of life
Parents/Guardian not responsible
Agent/ Not Bankrupt
Free Consent
"Free consent" - Consent is said to be free when it is not caused by –
1)   coercion,
2)   undue influence
3)   fraud,
4)   misrepresentation,
5)   mistake.
Consent is said to be so caused when it would not have been given but for the existence of such coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation or mistake.
Coercion
Coercion is the committing, or threatening to commit, any act forbidden by the Indian Penal Code,  or the unlawful detaining, or threatening to detain, any property, to the prejudice  of any person whatever, with the intention of causing any person to enter into an agreement.
Eg - A, on board an English ship on the high seas, causes B to enter into  an agreement by an act amounting to criminal intimidation  under the Indian Penal Code.
Undue influence
A contract is said  to be induced  by "undue influence” where the relations  subsisting  between the  parties  are  such that one of the parties is in  a  position  to dominate  the will of the other and uses that position to  obtain  an unfair advantage over the other.
Fraud
"Fraud" means and includes any of the following acts committed by a party to a contract, or with his connivance, or by his agent, with intent  to deceive another party thereto of his  agent,  or  to induce him to enter into the contract –
1)   the suggestion, as a fact, of that which is not  true, by one who does not believe it to be true;
2) The active  concealment  of  a  fact  by  one  
having knowledge or belief of the fact.
3)  A promise made without any intention of performing.
4)  Any other act fitted to deceive;
5)  Any such act or omission as the law specially  declares to be fraudulent.
Misrepresentation
"Misrepresentation"   means and includes –
1)   the positive assertion, in a manner not warranted by the information of the person making it, of that which is not true, though he believes it to be true.
2)   any  breach, of duty which, without  an intent to deceive, gains an advantage to the person committing it,  or any  one  claiming under him, by misleading  another to his prejudice or to the prejudice of any one claiming under him.
3)   causing, however innocently, a party to an agreement to make a mistake as to the substance of the thing which is the subject of the agreement.
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